BS EN ISO 14040:2006 pdf free

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BS EN ISO 14040:2006 pdf free.Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework.
The increased awareness of the importance of environmental protection, and the possible impacts associated with products , both manufactured and consumed, has increased interest in the development of methods to better understand and address these impacts. One of the techniques being developed for this purpose is life cycle assessment (LCA).
LCA can assist in
— identifying opportunities to improve the environmental performance of products at various points in their life cycle,
— informing decision-makers in industry, government or non-government organizations (e.g. for the purpose of strategic planning, priority setting, product or process design or redesign),
— the selection of relevant indicators of environmental performance, including measurement techniques, and
— marketing (e.g. implementing an ecolabelling scheme, making an environmental claim, or producing an environmental product declaration).
For practitioners of LCA, ISO 14044 details the requirements for conducting an LCA.
The scope, including the system boundary and level of detail, of an LCA depends on the subject and the intended use of the study. The depth and the breadth of LCA can differ considerably depending on the goal of a particular LCA.
The life cycle inventory analysis phase (LCI phase) is the second phase of LCA. It is an inventory of input/output data with regard to the system being studied. It involves collection of the data necessary to meet the goals of the defined study.
The life cycle impact assessment phase (LCIA) is the third phase of the LCA. The purpose of LCIA is to provide additional information to help assess a product system’s LCI results so as to better understand their environmental significance.
Life cycle interpretation is the final phase of the LCA procedure, in which the results of an LCI or an LCIA, or both, are summarized and discussed as a basis for conclusions, recommendations and decision-making in accordance with the goal and scope definition.
There are cases where the goal of an LCA can be satisfied by performing only an inventory analysis and an interpretation. This is usually referred to as an LCI study.
This International Standard covers two types of studies: life cycle assessment studies (LCA studies) and life cycle inventory studies (LCI studies). LCI studies are similar to LCA studies but exclude the LCIA phase. LCI studies are not to be confused with the LCI phase of an LCA study.
Generally, the information developed in an LCA or LCI study can be used as part of a much more comprehensive decision process. Comparing the results of different LCA or LCI studies is only possible if the assumptions and context of each study are equivalent. Therefore this International Standard contains several requirements and recommendations to ensure transparency on these issues.
LCA is one of several environmental management techniques (e.g. risk assessment, environmental performance evaluation, environmental auditing, and environmental impact assessment) and might not be the most appropriate technique to use in all situations. LCA typically does not address the economic or social aspects of a product, but the life cycle approach and methodologies described in this International Standard can be applied to these other aspects.
This International Standard covers life cycle assessment (LCA) studies and life cycle inventory (LCI) studies. It does not describe the LCA technique in detail, nor does it specify methodologies for the individual phases of the LCA.
The intended application of LCA or LCI results is considered during the goal and scope definition, but the application itself is outside the scope of this International Standard.
This International Standard is not intended for contractual or regulatory purposes or registration and certification.

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